Technical Debt: From Metaphor to Theory and Practice

Technical Debt: From Metaphor to Theory and Practice by Philippe Kruchten, Robert L. Nord, and  Ipek Ozkaya 

The metaphor of technical debt in software development was introduced two decades ago by Ward Cunningham to explain to nontechnical product stakeholders the need for what we call now “refactoring.” From the original description—”not quite right code which we postpone making it right” —various people have used the metaphor of technical “debt” to describe many other kinds of debts or ills of software development, encompassing broadly anything that stands in the way of deploying, selling, or evolving a software system or anything that adds to the friction from which software development endeavors suffer: test debt, people debt, architectural debt, requirement debt, documentation debt, or just an amorphous, all-encompassing software debt. Consequently, the concept of technical debt in software development has become somewhat diluted lately. Is a new requirement, function, or feature not yet implemented “requirement debt”? Do we call postponing the development of a new function “planning debt”? The metaphor is losing some of its strength.

To make some progress, we need to go beyond debt as a “rhetorical concept.” We need a better definition of what constitutes technical debt and some perspective or viewpoints that let us reason across a wide range of technical debt. In short, we need a theoretical foundation.

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