A Methodology for Operationalizing Enterprise Architecture and Evaluating Enterprise IT Flexibility by Alan MacCormack, Robert Lagerstrom, and Carliss Y. Baldwin
We propose a network-based methodology for operationalizing enterprise architecture. Our methodology is based upon using a “Design Structure Matrix” (DSM) to capture the coupling between different components in a firm’s architecture, including business and technology-related aspects. We apply our methodology to data gathered in a large pharmaceutical firm. We show that this methodology helps to identify layers in the firm’s architecture associated with different technologies (e.g., applications, servers and databases). We also show that it reveals the main “flow of control” within the architecture, as denoted by the classification of components into Core, Peripheral, Shared and Control elements. We analyze the cost of change for a subset of software applications within this architecture. We find that the cost of change is associated with the degree to which applications are highly coupled. We show the best measure of coupling that predicts the cost of change is one that captures all the direct and indirect connections between components. We believe our work constitutes an important step in making the concept of enterprise architecture more operational, improving a firm’s ability to analyze its architecture, understand its performance implications, and adapt and improve it in the future.
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