Managing Technical Debt: Insights from Recent Empirical Evidence

Managing Technical Debt: insights from Recent Empirical Evidence by Narayan Ramasubbu, Chris F. Kemerer, and C. Jason Woodard

Technical debt refers to maintenance obligations that software teams accumulate as a result of their actions. Empirical research has led researchers to suggest three dimensions along which software development teams should map their technical-debt metrics: customer satisfaction needs, reliability needs, and the probability of technology disruption.

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Design Capital and Design Moves: The Logic of Digital Business Strategy

Design Capital and Design Moves: The Logic of Digital Business Strategy by C. Jason Woodward, Narayan Ramasubbu, F. Ted Tschang, and V. Sambamurthy

As information technology becomes integral to the products and services in a growing range of industries, there has been a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how firms can effectively formulate and execute digital business strategies. This fusion of IT within the business environment gives rise to a strategic tension between investing in digital artifacts for long-term value creation and exploiting them for short-term value ap- propriation. Further, relentless innovation and competitive pressures dictate that firms continually adapt these artifacts to changing market and technological conditions, but sustained profitability requires scalable archi- tectures that can serve a large customer base and stable interfaces that support integration across a diverse ecosystem of complementary offerings. The study of digital business strategy needs new concepts and methods to examine how these forces are managed in pursuit of competitive advantage. We conceptualize the logic of digital business strategy in terms of two constructs: design capital (i.e., the cumulative stock of designs owned or controlled by a firm) and design moves (i.e., the discrete strategic actions that enlarge, reduce, or modify a firm’s stock of designs). We also identify two salient dimensions of design capital, namely, option value and technical debt. Using embedded case studies of four firms, we develop a rich conceptual model and testable propositions to lay out a design-based logic of digital business strategy. This logic highlights the interplay be- tween design moves and design capital in the context of digital business strategy and contributes to a growing body of insights that link the design of digital artifacts to competitive strategy and firm-level performance.

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Technical Debt and the Reliability of Enterprise Software Systems: A Competing Risks Analysis

Technical Debt and the Reliability of Enterprise Software Systems: A Competing Risks Analysis by Narayan Ramasubbu and Chris F. Kemerer

Enterprise software systems are required to be highly reliable as they are central to the business operations of most firms. However, configuring and maintaining these systems can be highly complex, making it challenging to achieve high reliability. Resource constrained software teams facing business pressures can be tempted to take design shortcuts in order to deliver business functionality more quickly. These design shortcuts and other maintenance activities contribute to the accumulation of technical debt, that is, a buildup of software maintenance obligations that need to be addressed in the future. We model and empirically analyze the impact of technical debt on system reliability by utilizing a longitudinal dataset spanning the 10 year lifecycle of a commercial enterprise system deployed at 48 different client firms. We use a competing risks analysis approach to discern the interdependency between client and vendor maintenance activities. This allows us to assess the effect of both problematic client modifications (client errors) and software errors present in the vendor-supplied platform (vendor errors) on system failures.

We also examine the relative effects of modular and architectural maintenance activities undertaken by clients in order to analyze the dynamics of technical debt reduction. The results of our analysis first establish that technical debt decreases the reliability of enterprise systems. Second, modular maintenance targeted to reduce technical debt was about 53% more effective than architectural maintenance in reducing the probability of a system failure due to client errors, but had the side-effect of increasing the chance of a system failure due to vendor errors by about 83% more than did architectural maintenance activities. Using our empirical results we illustrate how firms could evaluate their business risk exposure due to technical debt accumulation in their enterprise systems, and assess the estimated net effects, both positive and negative, of a range of software maintenance practices. Finally, we discuss implications for research in measuring and managing technical debt in enterprise systems.

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  • Narayan Ramasubbu (
  • Chris F. Kemerer (

Managing Technical Debt in Enterprise Software Packages

Managing Technical Debt in Enterprise Software Packages by Narayan Ramasubbu and Chris F. Kemerer

We develop an evolutionary model and theory of software technical debt accumulation to facilitate a rigorous and balanced analysis of its benefits and costs at different lifecycle stages of a large commercial enterprise software package. Our theory focuses on the optimization problem involved in managing technical debt, and illustrates the different tradeoff patterns between customer satisfaction and software quality under early and late adopter scenarios at different lifecycle stages of the software package. We empirically verify our theory utilizing a 10 year longitudinal dataset drawn from 69 customer installations of the software package. We then utilize the empirical results to develop actionable policies for managing technical debt in enterprise software product adoption.

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